A calculated number used to predict whether or not a water will precipitate, be in equilibrium with, or dissolved calcium carbonate. It is sometimes erroneously assumed that any water that tends to dissolve calcium carbonate is automatically corrosive.
The phenomenon in which some of the influent ions are not adsorbed and appear in the effluent. It is usually caused by an under-regenerated exchange resin bed or by excessive flow rate.
A series of bacteria, including legionella pneumophila, which can cause pneumonia-like illness called Legionnaires disease after the American Legion convention in Philadelphia where the disease first drew attention. These bacteria have been found growing in hard water scale and thrive below 140 degrees Fahrenheit in water heaters, showers, humidifiers, etc. Infection is obtained by inhalation.
The common name for calcium oxide (CaO). Hydrated lime is calcium hydroxide (CaH2O2).
Hard water seal containing a high percentage of calcium carbonate.
The basic metric unit of volume; 3,785 liters equals 1 U.S. gallon; 1 liter of water weights 1000 grams.
Ion exchange resins produced in both cation and anion versions with 12 percent or higher cross-linkage. They offer a higher resistance to oxidation and organic fouling.
On of the elements making up the earth’s crust, the compounds of which when dissolved in water make the water hard. The presence of magnesium in water is a factor contributing to the formation of scale and insoluble soap curds.
An element sometimes found dissolved in ground water, usually with dissolved iron but in lower concentrations; causes black stains, and other problems similar to iron.
Greensand that has been processed to incorporate in its pores and on its surface the higher oxides of manganese. The product has a mild oxidizing power, and is often used in the oxidation and precipitation of iron, manganese and/or hydrogen sulfide, and their removal from water.
The selected materials in a filter that form the barrier to the passage of certain suspended solids or dissolved molecules.
A linear measure equal to one millionth of a meter.
One millionth of an ohm. A unit of measurement used to test the electrical resistance of water to determine its purity. The purer the water, the greater its resistance to conducting an electrical current. Water of absolute purity has a resistance of eighteen million ohms across one centimeter at a temperature of twenty-five degrees Celsius.
One millionth of a mho. Used to measure the conductivity and the approximate TDS content of water. Absolute pure water has a conductivity of 0.055 micromhos per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. Also known as micro Siemens. The specific conductance is the reciprocal of resistance, therefore MHO is OHM spelled backwards.
A linear measure equal to one millionth of a meter, or .00003937 inch. The symbol for the micron is the Greek letter “µ”. The smallest particle visible to the human eye is 40 microns. Most types of bacteria range from 0.05 to 10.0 microns in size.
The term applied to a filter or filter medium to indicate the particle size above which all suspended solids will be removed, throughout the rated capacity. As used in industry standards, this is an “absolute”, not “nominal” rating.
Milligram Per Liter (mg/L)
A unit concentration of matter used in reporting the results of water and waste- water analyses. In dilute water solutions, it is practically equal to the part per million, but varies from the ppm in concentrated solutions such as brine. As most analyses are performed on measured volumes of water, the mg/L is a more accurate expression of the concentration, and is the preferred unit of measure.
A term applied to inorganic substances, such as rocks and similar matter found in the earth’s strata, as opposed to organic substances such as plant and animal matter. Minerals normally have definite chemical composition and crystal structure. The term is also applied to matter derived from minerals, such as inorganic ions found in water.
The simplest combination of atoms that will form a specific chemical compound; the smallest particle of a substance which will still retain the essential composition and properties of that substance, and which can be broken down only into atoms and simpler substances.
A membrane process that treats water between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration in the filtration/separation spectrum. It can remove particles in the 300 to 1,000 molecular weight range such as humic acid and organic color found in water. Nanofiltration may be used for selective removal of hardness ions.
Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU)
The standard unit of measurement used to measure turbidity in water. It makes use of a light scattering effect of fine suspended particles in a light beam. The NTU has replaced the Jackson Turbidity Unit (JTU) as the standard of measurement.
The electrical charge on an electrode or ion in solution, due to the presence of and excess of electrons.
In electrical systems, the term used to indicate neither an excess nor a lack of electrons; a condition of balance between positive and negative charges. In chemistry, the term used to indicate a balance between acids and bases; the neutral point on the pH scale is 7.0 indicating the presence of equal numbers of free hydrogen (acidic) and hydroxide (basic) ions.
In general, the addition of either an acid or a base to a solution as required producing a neutral solution. The use of alkaline or basic materials to neutralize the acidity of some waters is a common practice in water conditioning.
A unit of measure determining the resistance to passage of an electrical current. In a solution, it is related to the electrolyte concentration in the solution.
The range of pressure, usually expressed in pounds per square inch, over which water conditioning device or water system is designed to function.
Having the characteristics of or being derived from plant or animal matter, as opposed to inorganic matter derived from rocks and minerals. Organic matter is characterized by its carbon-hydrogen structure.
A process of diffusion of a solvent such as water through a semi-permeable membrane that will transmit the solvent but impede most dissolved substances. The normal flow of solvent is from the dilute solution to the concentrated solution.
The pressure and potential energy difference that exists between solutions on either side of a semi-permeable membrane. This pressure is caused by the tendency of water to flow in osmosis. Every 100-ppm (mg/L) of TDS produces about one pound per square inch of osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure must first be overcome by water pressure in the reverse osmosis process.
A chemical process in which electrons are removed from an atom, ion or compound. The addition of oxygen is a specific form of oxidation. Combustion is an extremely rapid form of oxidation, while the rusting of iron is a slow form.
A chemical substance that brings about the oxidation of other substances in chemical oxidation and reduction reactions. Examples of oxidizing agents include oxygen, ozone, chlorine and peroxide.
An unstable form of oxygen (03), which can be generated by sending a high voltage electrical discharge through air or regular oxygen. It is a strong oxidizing agent and has been used in water conditioning as a disinfectant. It can be also produced by some types of ultraviolet lamps and during lightning storms.